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GLOSSARY OF LAMINATING TERMS

ACETATE - Cellulose acetate or cellulose triacetate or cellulose acetate butyrate. Has the appearance, toughness, heat and solvent resistance found in polyesters.

ACRYLIC RESIN - A glassy thermoplastic made by combining several acrylic acids used as coatings and adhesives.

ADHESIVE - A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment.

BELLED EDGES - A raised edge(s) of a slit roll.

BLOCKING - An undesired adhesion between touching layers of material, backing adhering to the adhesive, occurring under storage or use.

BOND STRENGTH - Refers to one of three conditions: 1) anchor strength of adhesive to the substrate in laminating film; 2) the anchor strength of the laminating film to the product that has been laminated: or 3) the strength of adhesive-to-adhesive bond when two layers of film are laminated together.

COATING - The process of applying an emulsion, varnish or lacquer over a printed surface to give it added protection.

CONTAMINATION - Foreign substance on the film, i.e., bugs, wax, fiber, trim, drool.

COPOLYMER - Combination of two chemical compounds used in special adhesives such as in NAP-LAM II.

CORE OVERHAND - Core is larger than the roll opposite of recessed core. CREASES - A permanent line in the film surface caused by folding.

DELAMINATION - The separation of layers. Substrate separates from the adhesive.

EDGE VARIATION - Change in edge registration due to small amount of film protruding beyond the edge of a roll.

EMBOSS - The process of impressing an image onto a product to achieve a raised surface on the product.

ENCAPSULATION - A term which refers to the product being totally encased in the laminating film. Generally a border would exist around the product where the top and bottom film layers are bonded together.

EXTRUDED FILM - Film which has had thermoplastic adhesive applied under' force through an opening. GBC film is produced by this method.

EXTRUSION - Converting plastic powder of granules into a continuous uniform melt and forcing this melt through a die which yields desired shape.

FILM GAUGE - Refers to the total thickness of a particular film construction including its individual layers. The gauge is measured with a micrometer.

FLEXOGRAPHY - A process of rotary printing utilizing flexible rubber plates and rapid-drying inks. Most often used in label printing industry.

FLUSH CUT - Refers to the trimming of excess film from the edges of the laminated document. Flush-cutting exposes the edges of the material and increases the likelihood of the material splitting.

FOOTBALLS - Microscopic bubbles in the film caused by entrapped air between substrate and adhesive. The laminated film appears streaky and cloudy.

GAUGE - Synonym to thickness or caliper: Measured with a micrometer especially designed for films.

GAUGE BAND - An abrupt increase in film thickness in a small area in the transverse direction. Visible as a hump around the circumference of the slit roll.

GELS - A term used to describe speckles in the film caused by hard adhesive resins which did not fully melt during film manufacturing.

HEAT SHOE LAMINATOR - Also known as a roll laminator since rolls of film are used for laminating. This type of machine applies laminating film to both sides of the document simultaneously. The laminating film adhesive is activated by passing over stationary heaters, called shoes.

KRAFT - A strong paper made from wood pulp, derived from wood chips boiled in an alkaline solution containing sodium sulfate.

LAMINATE - A product made by bonding together two or more layers of material.

LETTER PRESS - A process of printing from an inked raised surface, impressed directly onto the paper surface.

LITHOGRAPHY - The process of printing from a plate on which the image to be printed is ink-repellent and the bland or non-image area is ink-absorbent. Ink applied to the plate surface is repelled by the image area, and so can transfer the image to paper.

MASTER ROLL - Term used to designate the manufactured roll from which the narrower, standard stock roll widths are slit. Also called mother roll and mill roll.

MATTE FILM - A type of laminating film having a dull finish with low reflectivity and capable of receiving pencil marking.

MILL ROLL - See Master Roll

MOTHER ROLL - See Master Roll

MSI - Abbreviation for thousands (M) of square inches (SI). A commonly used quantity of measurement for non-standard size film rolls.

MYLAR - Trade name for polyester film manufactured by the E & I DuPont DeNemours Company.
NAP-LAM - Trade name of all laminating film manufactured by GBC.

NIPPING - Squeezing together of hot laminating film and product to be laminated or another piece of laminating film.

OFFSET - A printing process in which an inked impression from a plate is first made on a rubber-blanked cylinder, then transferred on paper.

OFFSET POWDER - A dry spray used on printing presses to prevent wet ink transfer from the top of--one sheet to the bottom of the next sheet. ,

OLEFIN - A term referring to a specific group of synthetic polymers. Polyethylene and polypropylene are included in this group.

OVERSHOOT, INITIAL - Refers to the temperature of heated rolls upon initial start-up after the controlling thermostat has shut down the power. The accumulation of heat within the heaters causes the temperature to briefly rise above the normal control value.

POLYESTER - Shiny, transparent, tough, Thermoplastic Polymer used as the substrate in most laminating films. Resists abrasion and penetration by many chemicals.

POLYETHYLENE - Thermoplastic Polymer used as adhesive on standard GBC NAP-LAM films.

POLYPROPYLENE - Soft, transparent, Thermoplastic Polymer used as the substrate in GBC NAP-LAM III.

POLYSTYRENE - Rigid, very clear, and low tear-resistance plastic; has low or poor resistance to solvents.

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE - Also called PVC. Rigid variety used in Cerlox and flexible variety used in metal loose leaf binders. PVC is also used to make credit cards in a platen press, etc.

POROSITY - The property of paper that allows the permeation of air, and important factor in adhesive penetration.

PRESSURE SENSITIVE FILM - Frequently found in vending machines. Pressure sensitive film is transparent and applied to a given material without the use of heat. Once the protective backing is removed, the film is then pressed on the material to be laminated.

PRIMER - Synonym to tie coat. A coating applied to a surface prior to the application of adhesive to improve adhesion.

pt - An abbreviation for Point, a printer's unit of measurement regarding paper thickness. There are approximately 72 points to an inch, and 10 pt paper equates to 10 mil laminating film.

PVC - See Polyvinyl Chloride.

RESIN - A solid organic material. It usually has a melting range which has a tendency to flow when subjected to stress.

ROLL HARDNESS - The amount of "give" of the film on the surface when force is applied by finger pressure.

SCREEN PRINTING - The process of forcing ink through a fine mesh, transferring an image onto paper. The image is produced by controlling the holes or pores in the screen material. Also called silk screen.

SIGNATURE - The name given to a printed sheet which when folded becomes one unit of a book.

SILVERING - A term used to describe air pockets trapped between the product and the adhesive on the film. The result is unlaminated areas. Two factors contribute to silvering; not enough heat to melt the adhesive and not enough pressure at the nip point to press out entrapped air.

SLITTING - Slitting usually is performed after laminating by moving the web past a stationery, razor-like cutting apparatus.

SOFT ROLLS - This condition is caused by multiple gauge bands in the film roll. See Gauge Bands.

SOLVENT - A liquid substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances.

SOLVENT LAMINATION - Uses solvents as carriers for adhesive on film. Solvents are evaporated off into atmosphere and may violate EPA regulations, if after burner equipment is not installed. Fire hazard possible.

SPLICE - How film ends are jointed to make a straight continuous web. SQUEEZE-OUT - Refers to heat-activated adhesive which has been forced out at the edges of a laminate. The effect can be minimized by employing the lowest practical laminating temperature.

STREAKS - A term used to describe white lines in the film caused by entrapped air between the polyester and adhesive layers of the film. This condition is caused during the extrusion of the adhesive on the polyester.

SUBSTRATE - A material to which an adhesive is coated, i.e., polyester, paper, polypropylene, nylon, acetate.

TENTING - A term used to describe the laminated appearance of the space surrounding a photograph which is mounted upon another object. Two factors control the size and appearance of tenting: 1) the thicker the photograph, the larger the tent; 2) the thicker the adhesive layer, the less tenting there will be.

TEXTURE LAMINATE - A pattern introduced onto the film laminate by the used of specially engraved rollers. Linen weave and leather finish are typical. Used especially by professional in commercial photography.

VISCOSITY - The measurement of how fluid a substance is.

WEB - A term used to describe film unreeled from a film supply roll. May be a single layer or comprised of several components bonded or laminated together. WEB PRESS - A printing press which prints on rolls (or webs) of paper.

 
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