ACETATE - Cellulose acetate or cellulose triacetate or cellulose
acetate butyrate. Has the appearance, toughness, heat and solvent
resistance found in polyesters.
ACRYLIC RESIN - A glassy thermoplastic made by combining several
acrylic acids used as coatings and adhesives.
ADHESIVE - A substance capable of holding materials together by surface
BELLED EDGES - A raised edge(s) of a slit roll.
BLOCKING - An undesired adhesion between touching layers of material,
backing adhering to the adhesive, occurring under storage or use.
BOND STRENGTH - Refers to one of three conditions: 1) anchor strength
of adhesive to the substrate in laminating film; 2) the anchor strength
of the laminating film to the product that has been laminated: or
3) the strength of adhesive-to-adhesive bond when two layers of film
are laminated together.
COATING - The process of applying an emulsion, varnish or lacquer
over a printed surface to give it added protection.
CONTAMINATION - Foreign substance on the film, i.e., bugs, wax, fiber,
COPOLYMER - Combination of two chemical compounds used in special
adhesives such as in NAP-LAM II.
CORE OVERHAND - Core is larger than the roll opposite of recessed
core. CREASES - A permanent line in the film surface caused by folding.
DELAMINATION - The separation of layers. Substrate
separates from the adhesive.
EDGE VARIATION - Change in edge registration due to small amount
of film protruding beyond the edge of a roll.
EMBOSS - The process of impressing an image onto a product to achieve
a raised surface on the product.
ENCAPSULATION - A term which refers to the product being totally
encased in the laminating film. Generally a border would exist around
the product where the top and bottom film layers are bonded together.
EXTRUDED FILM - Film which has had thermoplastic adhesive applied
under' force through an opening. GBC film is produced by this method.
EXTRUSION - Converting plastic powder of granules into a continuous
uniform melt and forcing this melt through a die which yields desired
FILM GAUGE - Refers to the total thickness of a particular
film construction including its individual layers. The gauge is measured
with a micrometer.
FLEXOGRAPHY - A process of rotary printing utilizing flexible rubber
plates and rapid-drying inks. Most often used in label printing industry.
FLUSH CUT - Refers to the trimming of excess film from the edges
of the laminated document. Flush-cutting exposes the edges of the
material and increases the likelihood of the material splitting.
FOOTBALLS - Microscopic bubbles in the film caused by entrapped air
between substrate and adhesive. The laminated film appears streaky
GAUGE - Synonym to thickness or caliper: Measured with a micrometer
especially designed for films.
GAUGE BAND - An abrupt increase in film thickness in a small area
in the transverse direction. Visible as a hump around the circumference
of the slit roll.
GELS - A term used to describe speckles in the film
caused by hard adhesive resins which did not fully melt during film
HEAT SHOE LAMINATOR - Also known as a roll laminator since rolls
of film are used for laminating. This type of machine applies laminating
film to both sides of the document simultaneously. The laminating
film adhesive is activated by passing over stationary heaters, called
KRAFT - A strong paper made from wood pulp, derived from wood chips
boiled in an alkaline solution containing sodium sulfate.
LAMINATE - A product made by bonding together two or more layers
LETTER PRESS - A process of printing from an inked raised surface,
impressed directly onto the paper surface.
LITHOGRAPHY - The process of printing from a plate on which the image
to be printed is ink-repellent and the bland or non-image area is
ink-absorbent. Ink applied to the plate surface is repelled by the
image area, and so can transfer the image to paper.
MASTER ROLL - Term used to designate the manufactured roll from which
the narrower, standard stock roll widths are slit. Also called mother
roll and mill roll.
MATTE FILM - A type of laminating film having a dull finish with
low reflectivity and capable of receiving pencil marking.
MILL ROLL - See Master Roll
MOTHER ROLL - See Master Roll
MSI - Abbreviation for thousands (M) of square inches
(SI). A commonly used quantity of measurement for non-standard size
MYLAR - Trade name for polyester film manufactured by the E & I
DuPont DeNemours Company.
NAP-LAM - Trade name of all laminating film manufactured
NIPPING - Squeezing together of hot laminating film and product to
be laminated or another piece of laminating film.
OFFSET - A printing process in which an inked impression from a plate
is first made on a rubber-blanked cylinder, then transferred on paper.
OFFSET POWDER - A dry spray used on printing presses to prevent wet
ink transfer from the top of--one sheet to the bottom of the next
OLEFIN - A term referring to a specific group of synthetic polymers.
Polyethylene and polypropylene are included in this group.
OVERSHOOT, INITIAL - Refers to the temperature of heated rolls upon
initial start-up after the controlling thermostat has shut down the
power. The accumulation of heat within the heaters causes the temperature
to briefly rise above the normal control value.
POLYESTER - Shiny, transparent, tough, Thermoplastic Polymer used
as the substrate in most laminating films. Resists abrasion and penetration
by many chemicals.
POLYETHYLENE - Thermoplastic Polymer used as adhesive on standard
GBC NAP-LAM films.
POLYPROPYLENE - Soft, transparent, Thermoplastic Polymer used as
the substrate in GBC NAP-LAM III.
POLYSTYRENE - Rigid, very clear, and low tear-resistance plastic;
has low or poor resistance to solvents.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE - Also called PVC. Rigid variety used in Cerlox
and flexible variety used in metal loose leaf binders. PVC is also
used to make credit cards in a platen press, etc.
POROSITY - The property of paper that allows the permeation of air,
and important factor in adhesive penetration.
PRESSURE SENSITIVE FILM - Frequently found in vending machines. Pressure
sensitive film is transparent and applied to a given material without
the use of heat. Once the protective backing is removed, the film
is then pressed on the material to be laminated.
PRIMER - Synonym to tie coat. A coating applied to a surface prior
to the application of adhesive to improve adhesion.
pt - An abbreviation for Point, a printer's unit of measurement regarding
paper thickness. There are approximately 72 points to an inch, and
10 pt paper equates to 10 mil laminating film.
PVC - See Polyvinyl Chloride.
RESIN - A solid organic material. It usually has a melting range
which has a tendency to flow when subjected to stress.
ROLL HARDNESS - The amount of "give" of the film on the
surface when force is applied by finger pressure.
SCREEN PRINTING - The process of forcing ink through a fine mesh,
transferring an image onto paper. The image is produced by controlling
the holes or pores in the screen material. Also called silk screen.
SIGNATURE - The name given to a printed sheet which when folded becomes
one unit of a book.
SILVERING - A term used to describe air pockets trapped between the
product and the adhesive on the film. The result is unlaminated areas.
Two factors contribute to silvering; not enough heat to melt the adhesive
and not enough pressure at the nip point to press out entrapped air.
SLITTING - Slitting usually is performed after laminating by moving
the web past a stationery, razor-like cutting apparatus.
SOFT ROLLS - This condition is caused by multiple gauge bands in
the film roll. See Gauge Bands.
SOLVENT - A liquid substance capable of dissolving or dispersing
one or more other substances.
SOLVENT LAMINATION - Uses solvents as carriers for adhesive on film.
Solvents are evaporated off into atmosphere and may violate EPA regulations,
if after burner equipment is not installed. Fire hazard possible.
SPLICE - How film ends are jointed to make a straight continuous
web. SQUEEZE-OUT - Refers to heat-activated adhesive which has been
forced out at the edges of a laminate. The effect can be minimized
by employing the lowest practical laminating temperature.
STREAKS - A term used to describe white lines in the film caused
by entrapped air between the polyester and adhesive layers of the
film. This condition is caused during the extrusion of the adhesive
on the polyester.
SUBSTRATE - A material to which an adhesive is coated, i.e., polyester,
paper, polypropylene, nylon, acetate.
TENTING - A term used to describe the laminated appearance of the
space surrounding a photograph which is mounted upon another object.
Two factors control the size and appearance of tenting: 1) the thicker
the photograph, the larger the tent; 2) the thicker the adhesive layer,
the less tenting there will be.
TEXTURE LAMINATE - A pattern introduced onto the film laminate by
the used of specially engraved rollers. Linen weave and leather finish
are typical. Used especially by professional in commercial photography.
VISCOSITY - The measurement of how fluid a substance is.
WEB - A term used to describe film unreeled from a film supply roll.
May be a single layer or comprised of several components bonded or
laminated together. WEB PRESS - A printing press which prints on rolls
(or webs) of paper.